In any system that addresses potential vulnerabilities, vulnerability scanning or vulnerability assessment is a systematic process of finding security loopholes.

The purpose of vulnerability assessments is to prevent unauthorized access to systems from becoming possible. The confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the system are preserved by vulnerability testing. The system applies to all computers, networks, network devices, software, cloud computing, web applications, etc.

Types of Vulnerability Scanners

Vulnerability scanners have their ways of doing jobs. We can classify the vulnerability scanners into four types based on how they operate.

Cloud-Based Vulnerability Scanners

Used to find vulnerabilities within cloud-based systems such as web applications, WordPress, and Joomla.

Host-Based Vulnerability Scanners

Used to find vulnerabilities on a single host or system such as an individual computer or a network device like a switch or core-router.

Network-Based Vulnerability Scanners

Used to find vulnerabilities in an internal network by scanning for open ports. Services running on open ports determined whether vulnerabilities exist or not with the help of the tool.

Database-Based Vulnerability Scanners

Used to find vulnerabilities in database management systems. Databases are the backbone of any system storing sensitive information. Vulnerability scanning is performed on database systems to prevent attacks like SQL Injection.

Vulnerability Scanning Tools

Vulnerability scanning tools allow for several methods of identifying vulnerabilities in software. Vulnerability methods for system analysis analyze coding errors. Well-known rootkits, backdoors, and Trojans can be found in audit vulnerability software.

In the industry, there are several vulnerability scanners available. They can be open-source, paid, or free. On GitHub, most of the free and open-source software are available. Deciding which tool to use depends on a number of variables, such as the type of vulnerability, the budget, how often the tool is updated, etc.

1. Nikto2 

Nikto2 is a scanning program for open-source vulnerabilities that focuses on web application security. Nikto2 will discover about 6700 unsafe files that cause web server problems and report versions based on obsolete servers. In addition, Nikto2 will alert you to website configuration problems and run web server scans in a limited period of time.
Nikto2 does not provide any countermeasures or include risk management functionality for vulnerabilities identified. Nikto2, however, is a frequently updated tool that allows vulnerabilities to be covered more broadly.

2. Netsparker 

Netsparker is another vulnerability tool for web applications with an automation feature available for vulnerability finding. This tool is also capable of finding vulnerabilities within a few hours in thousands of web applications.
It has many specialized features, but it is a paying enterprise-level vulnerability platform. It has crawling technologies that, by crawling into the program, discovers vulnerabilities. Netsparker will identify and recommend mitigating approaches for vulnerabilities defined. Often, security tools are available for automated vulnerability evaluation.

3. OpenVAS

OpenVAS is a powerful tool for scanning vulnerabilities that supports large scale scans that are appropriate for organizations. This tool can be used not only in web applications or web servers, but also in databases, operating systems, networks, and virtual machines to find vulnerabilities.
OpenVAS receives daily updates, which broadens the coverage of vulnerability detection. It also helps to assess the risk and suggests countermeasures for the detected vulnerabilities.

4. W3AF

W3AF is a platform known as Web Application Assault and Foundation, free and open-source. This tool is an open-source web server scanning vulnerability tool. By finding and exploiting the vulnerabilities, it creates a framework that helps to secure the web application. This device is recognized for user-friendliness. W3AF has exploitation facilities used for penetration testing work as well, along with vulnerability scanning options.
In addition, W3AF covers a large-scale collection of vulnerabilities. This tool can be selected for domains that are attacked frequently, especially with newly identified vulnerabilities.

5. Arachni’s

For web applications, Arachni is also a dedicated vulnerability tool. A variety of vulnerabilities are covered by this tool and are updated regularly. Arachni offers risk assessment facilities and suggests tips and countermeasures for vulnerabilities that have been found.
Linux, Windows, and macOS are supported by Arachni, a free and open-source vulnerability tool. With its ability to cope with newly identified vulnerabilities, Arachni also assists in penetration testing.

6.  Acunetix

Acunetix is a paid (open-source version also available) web application security scanner with many features provided. With this tool, there is a scanning range of about 6500 vulnerabilities. It can also find vulnerabilities in the network as well, in addition to web applications.
Acunetix provides the ability for your scan to be automated. Suitable for large-scale organizations because many devices can be handled by it. HSBC, NASA, USA There are few industrial giants in the air force that use Arachni for vulnerability testing.

7. Nmap

Among many security professionals, Nmap is one of the well-known free and open-source scanning tools for networks. To discover hosts in the network and for operating system discovery, Nmap uses the probing technique.
In single or multiple networks, this feature helps to detect vulnerabilities. If you are new or are learning to scan for vulnerabilities, then Nmap is a good start.

8.  OpenSCAP

OpenSCAP is a framework for tools to help scan for vulnerabilities, evaluate vulnerabilities, measure vulnerabilities, and create security measures. OpenSCAP is a tool developed by communities that is free and open source. Only Linux platforms support OpenSCAP.
The OpenSCAP framework supports web applications, web servers, databases, operating systems, networks, and virtual machines for vulnerability scanning. In addition, they provide a risk assessment facility and support to counteract threats.

9.  GoLismero

GoLismero is a tool used for vulnerability scanning that is free and open-source. GoLismero focuses on finding web application vulnerabilities, but can also scan for network vulnerabilities. GoLismero is a convenient tool that works with outcomes provided by other vulnerability tools such as OpenVAS, then combines the findings and provides feedback.
A wide range of vulnerabilities, including database and network vulnerabilities, are covered by GoLismero. GoLismero also facilitates countermeasures for discovered vulnerabilities.

10. Intrusionist

Intruder is a paid vulnerability scanner designed specifically for cloud-based storage scanning. Immediately after a vulnerability is released, intruder software starts to scan. The Intruder scanning mechanism is automated and checks for vulnerabilities on an ongoing basis.
As it can manage many devices, Intruder is suitable for enterprise-level vulnerability scanning. In addition to cloud storage monitoring, Intruder can help identify network vulnerabilities as well as provide reporting and suggestions on quality.