DNS History and DNS Queries

DDOS Attack


Domain Name Systems:

Domain Name Systems (DNS) is called Internet phonebook. DNS helps to convert the numbers of IP addresses into human-readable domain names, allowing us to browse the internet or send emails without understanding what’s behind them. On any online service domain names can be easily used, and they work well with almost all kinds of web-based goods.

All Internet-connected devices contain a unique IP address that other machines use to locate the device. With DNS servers, IP addresses like (in IPv4) or newer alphanumeric IP addresses like 2400: cb00:2048 need not be memorized.

Working of the DNS

If a DNS server receives a request for information about an address or name within the domain from outside the domain, it provides the authoritative response. When a server receives a request for information about an address or a name outside that domain from within its own domain, it then passes the request on to another server, which is mostly the one operated by its Internet service provider. Whether that server doesn’t know the answer or the authoritative source for the answer, the top-level domain will then go to the DNS servers. This is accompanied by forwarding the request on for the particular domain to the authoritative server. The response then flows along the same direction backwards.

Types of DNS Queries

In a typical DNS lookup three kinds of queries can occur:

Iterative query

The DNS client enables a DNS server to return the best possible answer. If the queried DNS server fails to match the query name, a request will then be returned to an authoritative DNS server for a lower domain namespace level. The DNS client then submits a question to the referral address. The process continues with additional DNS servers down the database chain until there is either a timeout or an error.

Non-recursive query

This happens when a DNS resolver client asks a DNS server for a record it has access to either because it is authoritative for the record, or the record is inside its cache. In general, a DNS server can cache DNS records to reduce additional bandwidth usage and upstream server load.

Recursive query

In this question, if the resolver is unable to locate the record, a DNS client would need a DNS server to address the client either with the resource information requested or with an error message.

Taking a look at DNS history

If you have a very long history of working with the same customers for several years, there is always the possibility that someone on a website may change a DNS record and then this person will want to change it back as well. Often people simply forget to log stuff, and you may be put in a position where you’re trying to figure out what IPs your custom name servers were set to, or what the old nameservers were.

DNS and domain names are used for legal activities, while there are also those who focus on the Internet’s dark side, creating DDOS botnets, setting up phishing domains, sending SPAM, spreading viruses and malware, or actually launching any other illicit digital services.

Security specialists from private and public entities work together to identify these dishonest individuals in order to evaluate different internet resources and gather information that could help track their actions. Here are some of the primary areas to be discussed when performing a domain name and DNS audit:

  • Perform enumeration of documents
  • Explore all associated subdomains
  • Analyze DNS documents, such as MX, NS, A records, etc.
  • Explore answer to PTR records
  • Test the past of your DNS records
  • Find related IP-neighbors domains
  • Explore past and present Internet hosting companies
  • Detecting current and past DNS servers
  • Find matching domains behind an email address

How Does DNS Boost Site Performance?

Servers will store the answers they obtain over a limited time period to maximize performance. This helps them to respond quicker when a request for the same lookup comes in next time. For example, if someone in an organization tries to access the same training video on the same day on a specific website, the local DNS server will only have to fix the name once, and then it will be able to handle all the other requests out of its cache. The amount of time that the record is held is configurable; longer values lower the server load and shorter values ensure the most reliable responses.

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Secure Content Delivery Network (CDN)

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Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)

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PCI Scanning

Such screening helps service providers and retailers to continue to comply with the Payment Card Data Security Standard for Industry (PCI DSS).

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It function not only detects malware but also offers the methods and tools to delete it, and avoids potential malware attacks.

Cyber Security Operations Center (CSOC)

The CSOC consists of a team of always-on trained cybersecurity experts in charge of delivering round-the-clock monitoring and remediation services.